How Did They Make Ice Cream in the 17th Century?

How Did They Make Ice Cream in the 17th Century?  

History’s first confirmed ice cream graced the court of Charles II in 1671. It was made using a special flavor, orange blossom, and one very special chemical ingredient that made ice cream without refrigeration possible in the first place.

Ask who served the first ice cream and you’ll get a variety of answers. Sources name-drop everyone from the the Roman emperor Nero to Catherine de Medici. It’s true that various members of history’s elite enjoyed cooled or frozen drinks, but they hadn’t figured out how to turn cream into ice. The first confirmed mention of “ice cream” came during a feast given by the British king Charles II.

According to legend, Charles paid the maker a yearly stipend to keep the recipe secret, but it got out by the 1680s, when the Grace Countess Granvillewrote it down. In her recipe, she revealed what was probably the first ever flavor of ice cream, telling people to “sweeton” their “creame” and then add “orange flower water.” In other words, orange blossom. Orange blossom ice cream continued to be the only available flavor until the very end of the 1600s, at which point flavors like chocolate, lemon, and pumpkin joined the party.

How Did They Make Ice Cream in the 17th Century?  

And what an explosive party it was. We know now that mixing ordinary salt with ice is the first step to making our own ice cream at home. It’s a fast process that needs a simple chemical. Put a container filled with cream, possible an egg or two, sugar, and flavoring into a big bucket of ice and add some salt to the ice. As the salt mixes with the ice, it lowers its freezing temperature—which is why salt gets poured on the roads every winter. Ice doesn’t pop back to its liquid state spontaneously. It needs energy in the form of heat. That heat is provided from the ice around it, and from the cream mixture.

People in the 1600s weren’t aware of this. Instead of using salt to lower the temperature of the mixture, they used saltpeter. Saltpeter, KNO₃, was first used for making fireworks and gunpowder. It’s possible that this is how people stumbled upon its freezing properties.

Or it could be that early alchemists were experimenting with saltpeter and found out it froze substances. It’s even possible that people stumbled on the secret of ice cream while looking to preserve their chastity—saltpeter was rumored to suppress the libido.

All we know for sure is that, in 1558, an Italian scholar and playwright called Giambattista della Porta published a book called “Natural Magick” and recommended that people mix saltpeter and ice, then dip a vial of watered wine into the mixture, rotating it until it “congealed” to make a kind of wine slushie. From there, the secret of icing drinks slowly spread across Europe until, 113 years later, ice cream emerged as a royal delicacy.

11 Inventions That Could’ve Changed The World If Only Greed Hadn’t Set In

We could really have been living in a different world right now. A world with a lot more harmony among mankind. A world with a lot less conflict. A happier world for sure. But that wouldn’t have been profitable for some, now would it?

Before you call me cynical, here’s a list of 13 inventions that could have revolutionised the way we live but didn’t. Because greed came in the way.

1. General Motors EV1

EV1

blog.hemmings.com

EV1 was the world’s first mass-produced electric car. The decision to mass-produce an electric car came after GM received a favourable reception for its 1990 Impact electric concept car, from which the design of the EV1 drew heavily. This single-speed reduction integrated with motor and differential, a 2-door coupe was in production between 1996-1999, producing a total of 1,117 units.

The car was discouraged, and supposedly discontinued, after oil companies started showing their displeasure and discouraging manufacturers. Unfortunately, General Motors destroyed most of the units, and discontinued the car.

2. Project XA

Project XA

wallpoper.com

Project XA was a long-term project by the Liggett group. Liggett spent around $15 million and 12 years of research to come up with cigarettes that were considerably safer than conventional cigarettes. These cigarettes would have most carcinogens removed, which would reduce the harm done by tobacco and its by products.

Other tobacco companies didn’t like the implication that their tobacco was harmful. Defendant Brown & Williamson threatened Liggett’s “very existence” if it marketed the cigarette. Later R. J. Reynolds told the FDA that it was because the tobacco industry wanted to put across that “conventional cigarettes weren’t unsafe”. Calling one safer than the other would put their business in jeopardy.

3. Cold Fusion

Cold Fusion

simplyeliquid.co.uk

Cold fusion describes a form of energy generated when hydrogen interacts with various metals like nickel and palladium. Which, in layman terms, stands for a nuclear reaction that would occur at, or very near room temperature. That would mean a very high possibility of a cheap and abundant source of energy at one’s disposal.

Apparently, a number of failed experiments led to rival scientists and other members in the fraternity branding it as junk science. Even though funding for further tests in cold fusion is very hard to obtain, a small number of researchers continue to investigate the theory.

4. The Chronovisor

Chromevisor

3.bp.blospt.com

This, if true, has to be one of the most insane inventions that got lost in time. Father François Brunes, the author of several books on the paranormal and religion, in his 2002 book Le Nouveau Mystère du Vatican (“The Vatican’s New Mystery”) talks about the Chronovisor. The Chronovisor was apparently a fully functional device with which one could see, or hear things from the past! In the book, Brunes mentions that the device was built by a certain Pellegrino Ernetti, an Italian priest and scientist. Described as a large cabinet with a cathode ray tube for viewing the received events, and a series of buttons, levers, and other controls for selecting the time and the location to be viewed, it worked by receiving, decoding and reproducing electromagnetic radiation left behind from past events. It could also pick up the audio component or sound waves emitted by these same events. Ernetti said that he had observed, among other historical events, Christ’s crucifixion and photographed it as well. A copy of this image, Ernetti said, appeared in the 2 May 1972 issue of La Domenica del Corriere, an Italian weekly news magazine. The device being intriguing to say the least, but the existence, let alone the functionality of the Chronovisor was never validated. Some believe the device can still be found in the Vatican.

5. The Rife Beam

Rife Beam

rifedigital.com

Dr Royal Raymond Rife or Roy Rife, an American optics engineer, claimed to have invented a device that would have completely changed the health sector. The genius that many claim Dr. Rife was, engineered an electronic device in the 1930s that would destroy pathogens, bacteria, even viruses without leaving any toxic side effects. This meant that cancer, the life threatening disease that it has become off-late would have been as easy to cure as a common cold. The beam could completely destroy cancer by altering the cancer’s cellular environment or by killing cancer viruses with an electronic or ultra sonic beam.

You could probably guess exactly what happened next. The cancer cure industry is a multi-billion dollar one which wouldn’t have been so had the beam reached the public. Dr. Rife claimed that the American Medical Association, with pressure from the medical mafia discredited his life-saving device. Currently only a handful of doctors are holding this technology together, hoping that someday, it will save humanity.

6. Water Fuel Cell

Water Fuel Cell

YouTube

American Stanley Allen Meyer came up with a Water Fuel Cell in which the cell splits water into its component elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen would then be used to generate energy. According to Meyer, the device required less energy to perform electrolysis than the minimum energy requirement predicted or measured by conventional science. He claimed that this could revolutionise the automobile industry.

This theory, however, was found to be fraudulent by an Ohio court in 1996. But the suspicions surrounding his sudden death is what makes people think that his technology could have been suppressed.

7. The Cloudbuster

Cloudbuster

simonfellows.co.uk

Designed by Austrian psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich, the Cloudbuster was a pseudo-scientific device that could be used to produce rain by manipulating what he termed as orgone energy present in the atmosphere. Successfully tested in 1953, it was intended to be used like a lightening rod that would draw the orgone energy out of the atmosphere, causing the formation of clouds and rain. Famine wouldn’t have been a word that’s used so often in today’s day and age if a technology like this were to be made available.

Being a controversial figure, Reich was arrested, and all his works were destroyed.

8. Implosion Generators

Implosion Generators

free-energy.ws

Another device that could produce free energy based on implosion and water vortices was invented by Viktor Schauberger. But we couldn’t find a lot of information on the Austrian’s invention and his theory on vortex energy. Viktor’s invention was later buried by his U.S partners.

9. Wardenclyffe Towers

Tesla

googleusercontent.com

Scientist Nikola Tesla was one of the most interesting figures in history, with many of his theories and inventions being ahead of their time. His rise could have given birth to a number of world-altering technologies, but unfortunately that never happened. The Wardenclyffe Tower could have perhaps been the most important one. He attempted to provide free energy to everyone across the globe by harnessing electricity from the Earth’s ionosphere by means of towers. Without wires, the towers could transmit the harnessed electricity to ground-level areas requiring it.

But what’s a world if people can’t mint money out of a path-breaking product right? The thought of giving every individual across the globe free electricity didn’t go down well with the douchebags in power. Tesla’s  funding was stopped. His equipment and lab was burned down together with the related intellectual property because it posed a threat to undercutting the cost of the conventional electricity grid system. Tesla, who could have been the most important man in human history, died a poverty-stricken, lonely and forgotten man in New York.

10. The anti-gravity device

Anti Gravity Device

starburstfound.org

Thomas Townsend Brown developed discs that used electrogravitic propulsion to build devices that could defy gravity. But what happens when something too good to be true comes along the way? It becomes classified information and is shoved into rubble. That’s exactly what happened with Brown’s experiments as well. The results of his study were so impressive that it never saw the light of day.

11. The Unified Theory

Unified Thoery

vitamincfoundation.org

Linus Pauling and Matthias Rath worked together to come up with a unified approach to curing heart diseases. Following a brilliant study, they found that heart disease is a result of a long-term vitamin C deficiency. The solution was to treat patients with frequent high doses (e.g. 6g/day) of vitamin C while using the amino acids lysine and proline to remove the atherosclerotic plaque lining the inner walls of the blood vessels, that cause blockages, thereby restricting blood flow and cardiovascular disease.

But I’m sure you can see why we don’t see it in practice. It was a financial threat to the pharmaceutical industry. A highly successful cheap alternative therapy is not good for business at all.

Here Are 49 Ways In Which Alcohol Is Actually Good For Your Health

This weekend, you can round up your friends and have a drink without feeling guilty about it, because alcohol – in the right amount – can actually be good for your health. Yes, really!

Check out the health benefits of your favourite spirits.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Regulates cholesterol

Beer raises your HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) levels, thereby preventing your arteries from getting clogged and improving your heart health.

2. Boosts brain power

Research shows that people who drink beer in moderate amounts are less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer’s disease than non-beer drinkers.

3. Soothes a cold

Beer is made of barley, which when warmed up can improve blood circulation and reduce congestion. So, the next time you have a cold, drink a warm beer!

4. Contains fibre and B vitamins

Certain dark varieties of beer contain fibre, which can slow down the absorption of alcohol and regulate your digestion. Beer is also rich in B vitamins like folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin and vitamins B6 and B12. These vitamins make your skin soft and smooth, and can reverse pigmentation to some extent.

5. Prevents kidney stones

Beer has kidney-protective properties, so much so that it can lower your chances of getting kidney stones by a whopping 40 percent!

6. Strengthens bones

A study found that drinking two beers a day can improve bone density, but be careful because the same study found that drinking more than two beers increases your chances of getting a fracture.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Aids weight loss

Vodka is carbohydrate-free and has only 64 calories per ounce! The problem arises when people mix it with sugary juices and soft drinks. The trick is to mix it with water or soda, and add lemon, mint leaves or fruits for flavour.

2. Regulates blood pressure

Vodka improves your blood circulation and regulates your blood pressure, thereby reducing your chances of having a heart attack.

3. Relieves stress

Alcohol is a depressant, which means that it slows down the activity of the brain and the central nervous system, making you more relaxed. Among all the various types of alcohol, vodka is particularly effective when it comes to stress-relief.

4. Lowers fever

If a person has high fever, applying vodka on their forehead, arms, legs and chest can help bring down their temperature.

5. Improves digestion

Adding small amounts of vodka to your food can do wonders for your digestion. Penne vodka, anyone?

6. Soothes toothaches

Applying a little vodka to your tooth can cure a toothache, since it disinfects the tooth and numbs the pain a little.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Boosts brain power

Whiskey is loaded with ellagic acid, a chemical that improves cognitive function and prevents diseases like Alzheimer’s. You have to consume it in moderation however, because drinking too much of it does just the opposite.

2. Protects your heart

Over a hundred different studies have shown that alcohol has heart-protective benefits, and whiskey is one of the foremost in this department. In fact, research shows that drinking moderate amounts of whiskey on a regular basis can reduce your chances of having a heart attack or a stroke by 50 percent!

3. Prevents cancer

Ellagic acid is a powerful antioxidant that also prevents cancer. It battles the harmful free radicals that your body produces, keeping diseases at bay.

4. Boosts immunity

The jury is still out on this one, but some studies show that whiskey has the power to boost your immunity, helping your system fight off colds, illnesses and infections.

5. Prevents diabetes

Whiskey can reduce your chances of getting diabetes by 30 to 40 percent, because it improves your body’s ability to manage glucose.

6. Helps weight loss

Whiskey too has zero carbs and is low in calories. Drinking a small amount of whiskey after a meal can improve digestion and suppress your appetite, preventing you from overeating.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Contains medicinal properties

There’s a reason why we always associate rum with sailors. The British navy would give each of its sailors a ration of rum, because rum can help prevent scurvy, a condition marked by a deficiency of Vitamin C.

2. Increases longevity

Drinking moderate amounts of rum can add anywhere between 2 to 5 years to your life!

3. Prevents muscle and bone problems

Rum can help reduce muscle pain and prevent osteoporosis, since it increases bone mineral density.

4. Treats the common cold

Rum has antimicrobial properties that can help you do away with those sniffles.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Lowers your blood sugar levels

Tequila is made from the agave plant, which contains a natural sugar called agave. Agave triggers insulin production and thereby causes your blood sugar levels to fall.

2. Regulates cholesterol

Research shows that agavins act like fibre and lower your triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Tequila also regulates the absorption of fat from your intestines, making you feel less bloated when you drink.

3. Contains prebiotics and probiotics

Probiotics are the healthy bacteria in our intestines that control everything from digestion to immunity. Prebiotics make space for the probiotics, by creating a hospitable environment for them.

4. Prevents diseases

The agavins in tequila have several properties that help your body stave off a number of diseases, including osteoporosis, dementia and diabetes.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Contains a number of medicinal ingredients

The main ingredients in gin are juniper berries, which are a natural remedy for coughs, congestion, renal insufficiency and menstruation problems. Apart from these berries, gin is typically made with other medicinal herbs like coriander, cassia, nutmeg, sage, angelica root, and rosemary.

2. Prevents malaria

The combination of Gin and Tonic was actually invented by the British as a way to prevent malaria!

3. Reduces the inflammation associated with arthritis

Juniper berries are loaded with compounds that battle chronic inflammation, so drinking small amounts of gin on a regular basis can combat arthritis.

4. Fights infections

Gin fights both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, thereby helping your body stave off bacterial infections.

5. Keeps your skin healthy

Juniper berries are loaded with antioxidants that keep your skin young, healthy and wrinkle-free.

6. Improves digestion

The herbs in gin trigger the release of digestive enzymes and stomach acid, making it easier for your system to break down food.

7. Promotes weight loss

Like vodka and whiskey, gin too has a minimal amount of calories. In fact, it helps you out a little more by improving digestion and reducing bloating.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Keeps you young

Red wine contains resveratrol, a compound found in the skin of grapes that has anti-ageing properties.

2. Prevents cancer

Several studies have shown that wine can reduce your risk of getting cancer, colon and breast cancer in particular.

3. Reduces the risk of depression

Research shows that drinking two to seven glasses of wine per week can reduce your chances of depression considerably.

4. Keeps your heart healthy

Wine prevents blood clots and regulates your cholesterol levels, thereby keeping your arteries clear and preventing heart attacks and strokes as a result.

5. Protects your memory

Studies show that drinking one glass of wine every day can improve your memory and reduce your risk of developing dementia.

6. Helps you live longer

A Finnish study found that wine drinkers have a 34 percent lower mortality rate than people who drink beer or other spirits!

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Improves heart health

Brandy is made by distilling wine further, to increase its alcoholic content. It therefore has all the properties of wine, in a more concentrated proportion. The antioxidants in brandy balance cholesterol, reduce plaque build-up, lower blood pressure and prevent heart attacks.

2. Slows down ageing

The antioxidant compounds in brandy, some of which are attributed to the presence of copper in some of the ageing barrels, have a strong effect on the body. They fight the free radicals that cause ageing, keeping your skin and even your brain young.

3. Reduces the risk of cancer

Brandy contains ellagic acid, which prevents the growth and spread of cancer cells.

4. Soothes colds and coughs

For years, brandy has been used as a remedy for respiratory problems like colds, coughs and sore throats. It eliminates harmful bacteria, loosens up mucus and soothes away the irritation.

5. Boosts immunity

The antioxidants in brandy boost your immune system, while the alcoholic content helps kill off harmful pathogens.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Enables weight loss

Champagne is a type of sparkling wine that originates from a certain region in France, however it happens to contain fewer calories than both red and white wine! It is also served in slimmer flutes, making it easier for you to limit your intake. Studies also show that the bubbles make you sip on it more slowly, so you will probably drink lesser of it overall.

2. Improves memory

Studies show that a person’s spatial and short-term memory can improve after they drink a little champagne. Spatial memory is the ability to recognize one’s surroundings, as well as perform complex tasks and calculations. Short-term memory is the information that your brain retains for a short period of time.

3. Boosts heart health

While most people associate red wine with heart health, few know that champagne is as good for the heart as a glass of red wine.

Health Benefits of Alcohol

1. Contains plenty of antioxidants

Research shows that a glass of cider delivers the same amount of antioxidants as a glass of red wine.

2. Makes for a good gluten-free option

Since cider is made of apples, it contains no gluten (unlike beer), making it a good option for people who have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.

A word of caution, before you get carried away.

Experts recommend that women limit their alcohol intake to one drink per day, and that men limit their intake to two drinks per day. And no, you can’t save up these drinks and drink them all on the weekend, because binge drinking is extremely harmful to your health.

 

SOURCE

HOMEMADE PROTEIN POWDER

protein powder smoothie

I have a love/hate relationship with protein powder. I love that it helps make my daily smoothie more filling and meal-like. I love that it’s a quick and easy way to get a nice dose of the recovery-helping macronutrient after a hard workout.

But I hate the price. And I, more often than not, hate the ingredient list. There are definitely more natural protein powders out there, but the price is just so restrictively high! And the rare times I found a natural protein powder that wasn’t exorbitantly expensive, it was exorbitantly gritty, earthy, and generally not delicious.

We recently ran out of our giant tub of protein powder, and I’ve been meaning to buy another one. But every time I’ve gone grocery shopping, I’ve landed in the protein powder aisle, taken one look at the prices and turned my shopping cart right around. I have a seriously hard time justifying $20+ for some powder.

protein powder

But then it hit me, hey, I have stuff that has protein in it in my pantry. And I have a coffee grinder that does a dang good job of turning things into powder. So, uh, why not? So I did.

protein powder

It took a little bit of experimentation to get something that didn’t overwhelm other flavors in smoothies. At first, I tried just straight ground dried lentils. Tons of protein, yes, but also tons of lentil-y flavor. Not recommended, unless you are one of those people who thinks a peanut butter-banana-lentil smoothie sounds delicious. So then I started to think about ways to cut the lentil flavor, but still add protein—enter steel cut oats and brown rice.

protein powder lentils, grains

Both the steel cut oats and the brown rice have protein, but more importantly in this little concoction they are pretty flavorless, which helps cut back on the earthy flavor of the lentils. I worked a little bit on the ratio, and soon enough, I had a nice protein-packed powder that just was pretty much flavorless in a smoothie. Win!

WANT TO MAKE YOUR OWN? HERE’S THE BREAK DOWN:

  • 1/3 cup steel cut oats
  • 1/3 cup brown rice
  • 1 cup dried green lentils

I mixed all of that up in a bowl, and then ground it in my coffee grinder about 1/3 cup at a time (just because my grinder is small) until it was a very fine powder. I ended up with just shy of two cups total of protein powder.

protein powder

The nutritional info isn’t quite as high in protein as your standard off-the-shelf protein powder, but it’s still pretty amazing, especially considering the low price tag and the low number of ingredients. Because of the carb-y nature of the oats and rice, it’s higher in carbs that store-bought powder, too, but I’m a big fan of whole grain, natural carbs, so I’m good with it! And, of course, you can play with the ratios to up the protein even more (more lentils) and reduce the carbs (less steel cut oats and rice).  You could also try other protein-tastic add-ins, like dried soybeans or dired black beans. I just always have lentils kicking around, so it was a good fit for our lifestyle.

Here’s the comparision between my homemade protein powder and my typical off-the-shelf protein powder.

HOMEMADE PROTEIN POWDER (PER 1/4 CUP OF POWDER)

  • 130 calories
  • 8g protein
  • 1g fat
  • 24g carbs

Ingredients: Lentils, Brown Rice, Steel Cut Oats

STORE-BOUGHT PROTEIN POWDER  (PER 1/4 CUP OF POWDER)

  • 80 calories
  • 14g protein
  • 0g fat
  • 5g carbs

Ingredients: Proprietary non-GMO protein blend (rice protein, pea protein and soy [isolated soy protein and fermented soy]), di-calcium phosphate, FOS (fructooligosaccharides), curcumin (natural color), banana flavor, potassium citrate, guar gum, magnesium oxide, psyllium, natural vanilla flavor, oat bran, microcrystalline cellulose, spirulina, vitamin C, vitamin E (d-alpha tocopheryl acetate), choline bitartrate, inositol, apple pectin, bee pollen, niacinamide, vitamin A palmitate, zinc oxide, manganese sulfate, ferrous fumarate, calcium pantothenate, lecithin, lemon bioflavonoids, papaya, bromelain, chlorophyll, pyridoxine HCl, riboflavin, thiamine HCl, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, folic acid, biotin, potassium iodide, chromium chloride, sodium selenite, sodium molybdate

smoothie protein powder

I know what some of you are saying—but I don’t have a coffee grinder! Well, I think it’s worth the cash to go out and buy one. My coffee grinder was a whopping $10 at Target a few years ago. A $10 coffee grinder, $1 bag of lentils, $1 bag of brown rice and $2 worth of steel cut oats will make you much more than $14 worth of all-natural, plant-based, vegan protein powder.

protein powder

I’m a unflavored, unsweetened protein powder kind of girl, but I know that sometimes it can be really fun to mix it up with fun flavors, so I spent a little time creating four different flavor variations on the powder.

protein powder

VARIATIONS

  • Cappuccino: For each 1/3 cup of lentil/rice/oats mixture you blend in the coffee grinder, throw in 1 tablespoon of whole coffee beans and blend until a fine powder. To sweeten, add desired amount of stevia or sugar.
  • Chocolate: For each 1/3 cup of lentil/rice/oats mixture you blend in the coffee grinder, throw in 1 tablespoon of unsweetened cocoa powder and blend until a fine powder. To sweeten, add desired amount of stevia or sugar.
  • Vanilla: For each 1/3 cup of lentil/rice/oats mixture you blend in the coffee grinder, add in the insides of 1/2 of a vanilla bean or slice a whole vanilla bean in half lengthwise and stash in a jar with the whole batch of protein powder to flavor continuously. To sweeten, add desired amount of stevia or sugar.
  • Pumpkin Spice: For each 1/3 cup of lentil/rice/oats mixture you blend in the coffee grinder, add in 1/4 teaspoon of ground ginger and ground cinnamon and 1/8 teaspoon of ground nutmeg and ground cloves. To sweeten, add desired amount of stevia or sugar.

coffee grinder

Let me know if you guys try it out with any other ratios, flavors or ingredients! I’d love to hear what you guys come up with. Happy protein powder making!

 

SOURCE

Clever ways to fix bad eating habits

How food impacts your energy

When you’re hungry, a hormone produced in the stomach called ghrelin, interacts with the neutrotransmitter NPY in the brain, signaling to you that your body’s energy levels are low and you need food:


source: YouTube

NPY lives in the hypothalamus, a part of your brain that controls your energy levels, memory, and emotion.

In the context of food, the hypothalamus is like a 24-hour bouncerlooking out for your energy, keeping constant tabs on when you need your next meal.

Once you eat, your food breaks down into glucose, which is like fuel for your brain. In order to maintain alertness, your brain functions best when there is a consistant amount of glucose in your blood.

Leigh Gibson, a researcher from Roehampton University in England, noted:

The brain works best with about 25 grams of glucose circulating in the blood stream – about the amount found in a banana.

You can get this short-term glucose fix from a Snickers bar or a t-bone steak, but the trick to keep your energy levels functioning at peak performance is knowing which foods help you maintain optimal glucose levels while at the same time making you feel full longer.

In 2012, researchers at the University of Sydney created the satiety index, a guide for choosing foods to eat based on how full you’ll feel after and whether or not you’ll experience an energy crash.

Here’s a visual chart of the guide, showing how different foods stack up in terms of how you can expect to feel after eating them:


source: Massive Health

This chart takes into account how quickly glucose from certain types of food get released in your bloodstream (also called a food’s glycemic index).

To maintain your energy levels, you want to eat food like beans, fish, and most types of vegetables because they release glucose slowly into your bloodstream.

Meanwhile, high-carbohydrate or high-sugar foods like white bread, potatoes, and candy bars cause a rapid rise in glucose levels followed by a crash in energy.

This crash happens because of a spike in the release of insulin, a hormone that tells your body to suck up as much glucose as possible; which leads to you feeling tired and unmotivated.

To make matters worse, when you eat more food that’s high in carbohydrates and sugar, you need to eat even more of them to feel full.

Our love affair with junk food

Food psychologists believe that energy rich foods (like those high in fat and sugar) were attractive to early humans and needed to be taken advantage of if they became available:


source: YouTube

As a result, these foods became more desirable in order to survive.

The problem is, recent research indicates that continual intake of food that’s high in fat or sugar, overrides your body’s ability to tell you when you’re full.

So the more unhealthy food you eat, the more you desire it.

Why you crave “crispy”

As if it weren’t already hard enough to stop eating food high in fat and sugar, certain foods we would describe as being “crispy,” like potato chips or french fries, are even more hard-wired to be attractive to you.

Millions of years ago, early primates ate a lot of insects and plants. If something our ancestors ate was crispy, it was a sign of freshness and meant that it was safe to eat.

When John Allen, a research scientist at the University of Southern California, looked at brain scans when the word “crispy” was said, he found that areas in the brain started lighting up in the same way as if the crispy food was actually being eaten.

This finding was noted by Celebrity chef Mario Batali in his book The Babbo Cookbook,

“The single word ‘crispy’ sells more food than a barrage of adjectives…”

So when a menu describes a type of food as being “crispy”, you begin to have the same experience as if you are actually eating the food because of an innate desire for the sound of a crunch.

Diets suck

The crash diet always fails. Why? Because you’re trying to break years of your own eating habits while going against human evolution all in one swoop.

When researchers looked at the results across 31 studies on eating habits, they found that dieting doesn’t work in the long run. Within five years, about two-thirds of dieters gain the weight back (and sometimes more).

If you regularly skip a meal as part of a diet, you’ll be hungry and your brain makes even worse food choices when you haven’t eaten in a while.

That’s exactly what a team of researchers found when they asked people to fast overnight on two different days.

The first day, the participants were fed breakfast before looking at photos of high-calorie food.

The second day, they were not given breakfast and then had to look at the same photos.

The results of the study found that participants who were shown photos of high-calorie food without eating breakfast, showed more activation in areas of their brains that indicate desire, suggesting that fasting or dieting makes it harder to resist high-calorie food.

Solving the food-life balance

Whether you’re starting a new career or a family (or one of the other thousand moments that will inevitably occur in your life), making what you eat a priority is the single biggest change you could make to improve how you feel, the work you do, and how you treat the people around you.

I founded a company a year ago and getting my eating habits right has been a continuous experiment. It’s a work in progress but here’s what I do to sustain a healthy eating lifestyle.

1. Cut sugar and starch (gradually)

Eating too much high-sugar and high-carbohydrate food makes you feel like crap.

The challenging part about trying to cut these foods out of your eating schedule is you realize that pretty much everything sold at the grocery store or made in a restaurant has either a type of sugar or starch in it.

Here’s a guide that I use when buying food:


source: paleohacks.com

Cutting the majority of sugar and starch out of your diet is a dramatic change so you need to treat it like building a habit.

When you’re creating a new habit, it’s best to start small so you don’t become overwhelmed and feel guilty if you slip up.

Willpower is like a muscle, and the growth of it takes time.

When it comes to restructuring how you eat, the best thing to do is eat no high sugar or high starch foods for 4 days a week.

After two weeks, move to 5 days a week. Repeat this cycle once more so you’re at 6 days a week of healthy eating.

2. Removing guilt with a Cheat Day

I don’t want to go through life not being able to enjoy a Tim Horton’s cheese croissant once in a while (Yes, I’m an American-Canadian).

Because we are modern humans and have been living with tempation from fast food restaurants and vending machines our whole lives, letting yourself go one or two days a week won’t kill you.

On your Cheat Day, you can eat whatever you want, but stop when you feel full, rather than stuffed (don’t try to eat enough junk to make up for a week or you’ll feel awful for days).

If you can workout on your Cheat Day, even better. My Cheat Day foods are usually ones that have a high glycemic index (things like potatoes, french fries, and ice cream) which help in recovery from exercise.

3. Use a mint to master portion control

One of my biggest challenges is eating just enough to the point that I get full.

I have the tendency to overeat so one way I fight this is by having a mint or chewing gum once I feel full after a meal.

Because of mint’s strong scent, it naturally suppresses your appetite.

That’s exactly what psychologists at the University of West Virginia found when they gave people mints to sniff throughout the day.

The results of the study showed that people who inhaled mint, ate 3,000 fewer calories over the week.

Your sense of smell is a big part of your experience of food, so by controlling your scent you can somewhat control your appetite.

4. Replacing “crispy”

I have a mild addiction to chips. So one thing I’ve done that has worked well is replacing crispy chips with a healthier alternative that is also crispy – like a cucumber or bell pepper.

Granted, a cucumber may not offer the same explosion of flavor as chips, but after I’ve eaten it, I feel better and more full, curbing my desire to want more food.

5. Never skip breakfast

To regulate glucose levels, you should eat within 30 minutes of waking up. Research also shows that skipping breakfast may increase how much food you end up eating at lunch.

For breakfast, I’ll aim for something high in protein like an egg white omelet or oatmeal with blueberries, which keeps me feeling alert and full for hours.

What you eat reflects in everything you do. Eating well helps you be more creative, productive, and enjoyable to be around.

The hard part with eating right is there is no plan that is perfect for everyone. There’s no simple prescription. The only way to find what works for you is to experiment with what you eat and find something you can sustain that makes you feel alive.

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Ancient Romans used urine as toothpaste, mouthwash, and laundry detergent!

 

Multipurpose Cleaner

 

It sounds gross, but we’ve all thought about using our own urine for mouth wash. No? Maybe it’s just me. Regardless, urine contains ammonia which is a natural teeth whitener and can actually be used to prevent you from getting cavities! So before you go to the dentist next, you know what to do. Another common use of urine was to clean clothes. Laundrymen used to set out jars in front of their shops and whoever was passing by could just pee into the jar. Whenever the jar became full, the laundrymen would bring the jar in and use it to clean clothes!

 

I guess the ancient Romans enjoyed the smell of urine because these businesses were such money makers that emperors Nero and Vespasian both made urine taxes! Ancient Rome must have smelled like…well, you know. Check the source to learn more about Roman Urine!


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Heart Health: How To Improve Your Heart Without Vigorous Exercise

Heart HealthDon’t have time in your schedule for a vigorous jog? Take heart: A new study finds mid-lifers can enhance their heart health by regularly engaging in leisure and household activities such as gardening, brisk walking and housework. And it’s never too late to get active.

The research, which appears in the American Heart Association’s journalCirculation, studied people who had participated in these activities regularly for more than a decade.

“It’s not just vigorous exercise and sports that are important” to heart health, said Mark Hamer, Ph.D., study lead author and associate professor of epidemiology and public health at University College in London, U.K., in a press release. “These leisure-time activities represent moderate intensity exercise that is important to health. It is especially important for older people to be physically active because it contributes to successful aging.”

The study followed 4,200 people who recorded the duration and frequency of activities outside of work, ranging from sports to chores. They included cycling, sports, brisk walking, home maintenance, “vigorous” gardening and housework.

Between 1991 and 1993, researchers conducted a baseline assessment that analyzed two important inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Participants who engaged in regular activity had lower levels of CRP and IL-6 than those who did not. When participants were reexamined during a 10-year follow-up, the levels remained stable versus those who were minimally active.

“Inflammatory markers are important because we have shown they are a key mechanism explaining the link between physical activity and the lower risk of heart disease,” Hamer noted in a press release. “The people who benefited the most from this study were the ones that remained physically active.” But if you’re a couch potato, the study should encourage you to get moving: People who shifted from an inactive to active lifestyle had lower inflammatory markers at their follow-up.

One interesting tangential finding from the study: People become more active in retirement. About half of participants engaged in moderate to vigorous activity for the recommended 2.5 hours per week for heart health — but the rate soared to 83 percent in later phases of the study.

“The percentage of exercising participants jumped quite a bit because they were entering their retirement during the last phase of the study,” Hamer said in a press release. “We have shown that retirement seems to have a beneficial effect on physical activity levels.”

The study participants were part of the ongoing Whitehall II research, which has followed more than 10,000 British civil service workers since 1985 to examine social and occupational influences on cardiovascular health.

 

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